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Composition Scheme for Works Contract

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By Shreyansh Singh
5 min read

Composition Scheme for Works Contract

Key Takeaways

  • Works contracts blend the supply of goods and services, creating complexities in tax compliance and valuation.
  • The pre-GST era saw dual taxation on works contracts through VAT and service tax, leading to confusion and increased costs.
  • The GST Composition Scheme offers a simplified tax compliance process for works contractors but limits claiming Input Tax Credit.
  • Under GST, works contractors can alleviate tax burdens by claiming Input Tax Credit for GST paid on inputs and services.
  • Determining the value and place of supply in works contracts is crucial for accurately calculating GST liabilities and ensuring compliance.

Understanding the Works Contract Concept

A works contract represents a comprehensive arrangement that merges the supply of goods and services into a single contract, particularly prevalent in construction and related industries. This unique type of contract encompasses a wide range of activities including construction, assembly, fabrication, and installation services, where both materials (goods) and labor (services) are supplied by the contractor to execute a project. The defining characteristic of a works contract is its composite supply nature, meaning it cannot be distinctly classified solely as a service or a sale of goods. This intricacy often leads to complexities in tax administration, valuation, and compliance, as the delineation between goods and services within the contract impacts the applicable tax regime.

VAT and Its Role in Works Contracts

Before the Goods and Services Tax (GST) was introduced in India, Value Added Tax (VAT) was a significant component of the taxation framework for works contracts. VAT, being a state-level tax on the sale of goods, applied to the material component of works contracts. However, the application of VAT in works contracts was not straightforward due to the inherent blend of services and goods in these contracts. States had their own methods and rates for taxing the goods portion of the works contract, leading to a lack of uniformity and creating challenges in the determination of the value of goods and services for taxation purposes.

The complexity was further compounded by the fact that services included in the works contracts were subject to service tax, a central levy, creating a scenario where both VAT and service tax could apply to different portions of the same contract. This dual taxation often led to disputes and confusion over the correct valuation for the separate components of the contract, highlighting the need for a more integrated tax system that could simplify and unify the taxation of works contracts. The introduction of GST sought to address these challenges by subsuming multiple taxes into a single tax, aiming to eliminate the cascading effect of taxes and simplifying the tax structure for works contracts among other areas.

Provisions Related to Works Contract Services under GST | GST Works Contract

The Era of Works Contracts Before GST Implementation

Prior to the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India, the taxation of works contracts was a complex affair marked by the concurrent application of multiple taxes. Works contracts, due to their inherent nature of combining the supply of goods and services, were subjected to both Value Added Tax (VAT) imposed by state governments on the goods component and Service Tax levied by the central government on the services portion.

This dual taxation system often led to ambiguity and disputes over tax liabilities, as the distinction between goods and services in a works contract was not always clear-cut. Each state had its own rules and rates for VAT, further complicating compliance for businesses operating across multiple states. Additionally, the cascading effect of taxes – tax on tax – was a significant burden on businesses, leading to increased costs and complexity.

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Navigating the Composition Scheme for Works Contracts

composition scheme for works contracts

With the advent of GST, a more streamlined approach was introduced for the taxation of works contracts through the Composition Scheme. This scheme is designed for small taxpayers to simplify their tax obligations, allowing them to pay GST at a fixed rate on their turnover without the need to separately tax the goods and services components. Works contractors eligible for this scheme benefit from reduced compliance costs and simpler tax procedures, as it alleviates the need for detailed accounting for inputs and input services.

However, navigating the Composition Scheme for works contracts comes with its set of conditions and limitations. Eligibility for the scheme is subject to turnover thresholds, and contractors opting for this scheme are not allowed to claim Input Tax Credit (ITC), which can be a significant drawback for those with substantial input taxes. Additionally, the scheme restricts participants from engaging in interstate supplies and mandates the issuance of a bill of supply instead of a tax invoice, meaning they cannot collect GST from their customers.

The Composition Scheme under GST represents a shift towards simplification and streamlining of tax compliance for works contracts. It offers a viable option for small and medium-sized contractors seeking to reduce the administrative burden associated with tax filings. However, the decision to opt for the scheme should be made after careful consideration of its implications on input tax credits, eligibility criteria, and the nature of supplies, ensuring that it aligns with the business’s operational and financial strategies.

Claiming Excise Duty Credit in Works Contracts

Before the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime, the taxation landscape for works contracts involved various levies, including Excise Duty on manufactured goods. Contractors engaged in works contracts often faced challenges in claiming credit for the Excise Duty paid on goods and materials used in executing contracts. The inability to fully utilize this credit added a financial burden, as the excise component could not be offset against the service tax or VAT liabilities on the output service or sale.

With the introduction of GST, a more integrated approach to tax credits was established. GST subsumed multiple indirect taxes, including Excise Duty, VAT, and Service Tax, into a single tax, enabling a seamless flow of input tax credits. Under GST, works contractors can claim the Input Tax Credit (ITC) for GST paid on inputs, input services, and capital goods used in the supply of the work contract. This system not only alleviates the tax burden but also reduces the cost of inputs, as the tax paid on purchases can be used to offset the GST liability on outputs, making the process economically beneficial for contractors.

Record-Keeping Requirements for Works Contractors

requirements for works contractors

For works contractors, maintaining comprehensive and accurate records has always been crucial, but under the GST regime, it has become even more critical. The GST framework mandates detailed record-keeping to ensure transparency and facilitate the smooth claiming of Input Tax Credits (ITC). Contractors must keep records of all transactions, including purchases of goods and services, supplies made, input tax credits availed, and GST payments. These records are essential for the accurate calculation of tax liabilities and for compliance checks and audits by tax authorities.

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The GST law specifies the types of documents and records that must be maintained, such as tax invoices, bills of supply, credit and debit notes, receipt vouchers, payment vouchers, refund vouchers, and delivery challans. These documents should detail the nature of the transactions, the value of supplies, the tax charged, and other relevant information. Additionally, works contractors are required to maintain accounts of stock in hand, including the opening balance, receipt, supply, goods lost, stolen, destroyed, and closing balance.

Proper record-keeping helps in streamlining the tax compliance process, ensuring accuracy in tax filings, and avoiding penalties for non-compliance. It also plays a vital role in the efficient management of business operations, providing insights into financial health and operational efficiency. For works contractors, adopting systematic record-keeping practices is not just a regulatory requirement but a strategic tool for effective business management under the GST regime.

Determining the Value in Works Contract Supplies

In the realm of GST, accurately determining the value of supplies in a works contract is pivotal for computing the correct tax liability. The value of a works contract supply is not merely the sum of its parts but includes various elements that collectively contribute to the total consideration charged for the contract. This valuation is crucial as it directly affects the GST payable on the contract.

The value of supply in works contracts encompasses the total amount received or receivable by the contractor for the construction, fabrication, completion, erection, installation, or commissioning of an immovable property. It includes not only the charge for the work done but also the value of all goods and services supplied in connection with the execution of the contract, including materials, planning and design work, and any other ancillary services.

Under GST, the method for determining the value of supply in works contracts may include the consideration of various adjustments and inclusions, such as taxes, fees, and charges levied under other laws but excluding the GST and its cesses. Importantly, if goods or services are supplied free of charge or at a reduced cost for use in executing the works contract, their value must be included in the value of the supply if not already accounted for.

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Identifying the Place of Supply in Works Contracts

Identifying the correct place of supply is crucial in works contracts for determining the applicable GST regime—whether Central GST (CGST) and State GST (SGST) or Integrated GST (IGST) will apply. The place of supply in works contracts, especially those involving immovable property, is distinct and carries implications for tax jurisdiction and compliance.

place of supply in works contracts

For works contracts related to immovable property, the place of supply is the location of the property. This principle ensures that the GST revenue accrues to the state where the property is situated, aligning the tax with the locus of the service consumption. In scenarios involving more than one state or union territory, the contractor must navigate through the complexities of apportioning the value of services and comply with the GST regulations applicable in each jurisdiction.

The determination of the place of supply in the context of immovable properties also affects inter-state and intra-state transactions. For instance, if the contractor and the property are in the same state, CGST and SGST apply. Conversely, if the contractor and the property are in different states, IGST is levied. This distinction is critical for works contractors as it influences the tax rates, invoicing, and the filing of GST returns.

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Understanding these aspects—determining the value of supply and identifying the place of supply—is fundamental for works contractors to ensure compliance with the GST laws, accurately calculate their tax liabilities, and strategize their operations within the legal framework of the GST regime.


What exactly is a works contract?

A works contract is a specialized agreement that combines the provision of goods and services, mainly seen in construction and related industries. It involves a range of activities like construction, assembly, and installation, where both materials and labor are supplied by the contractor. The blend of goods and services makes taxation and compliance complex.

How was VAT applied to works contracts before GST?

Before the GST era, VAT was levied on the goods component of works contracts, with each state setting its own rates and methods. This created a lack of uniformity and added to the complexity because services in the same contracts were also subject to service tax, leading to dual taxation issues.

What benefits does the GST Composition Scheme offer to works contractors?

The GST Composition Scheme simplifies tax compliance for small and medium-sized works contractors by allowing them to pay a fixed rate on their turnover. This scheme reduces compliance costs and simplifies tax procedures but comes with restrictions, such as no interstate supplies and the inability to claim Input Tax Credit.

Can works contractors claim Input Tax Credit for excise duty paid before GST?

Under the pre-GST system, contractors faced difficulties in fully utilizing the credit for Excise Duty paid on materials. With GST, however, works contractors can claim Input Tax Credit for GST paid on inputs, input services, and capital goods, reducing the overall tax burden and input costs.

How is the value of supply determined for works contracts under GST?

The value of supply in works contracts includes the total consideration for the construction, erection, installation, or commissioning of an immovable property. It encompasses the cost of materials, labor, and any other services provided. The valuation rules under GST consider various adjustments to accurately reflect the total value of the contract.

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